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Glucafene

Composition:

Each 15 ml contains:  
Papverine hydrochloride 0.05 gm
Glyceryl guaiacolate 0.15 gm
Menthol 0.0025 gm
Balsam tolu 0.062 gm
Flavoured syrup  15 ml


Properties:
Papaverine is a smooth muscle relaxant & vasodilator. It is an alkaloid devoid of narcotic properties. Its pharmcological action is related to the inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase found in many tissues & has also been shown to inhibit the function of cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase.
Glyceryl guaiacolate (guiafenesin) increases respiratory tract fluid secretions and helps loosen phlegm and bronchial secretions. By reducing the viscosity of secretions. Guiafenesin increases the efficiency of the mucociliary mechanism in removing accumulated secretions from the upper and lower airway. As a result, sinus and bronchial drainage is improved and non-productive coughs become more productive and less frequent.

Pharmacokinetics:
Papaverine is highly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (> 90%), after oral administration. Its peak concentrations occur at one hour. The half-life of papaverine is 1.5 – 2 hrs. It is highly protein bound and is extensively metabolized in the liver with 50-80% of a dose excreted in urine in 48 hrs.
Glyceryl guaiacolate is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is rapidly metabolized and excreted in the urine. It has a plasma half-life of one hour.

Indications & usage:

Expectorant and cough suppressant.

Contraindications:
Hypersensitivity to any component of glucafene syrup.

Side effects:
Gastrointestinal disturbance, flushing of the face, headache, malaise and skin rash have been reported.

Drug interactions:
Glucafene syrup decreases the effectiveness of Levodopa.
Glucafene may potentiate the effect of some antiarrhythmic agents (Ca channel blockers) as well as hypotensive drugs.

Precautions:
Glucafene syrup should be given with caution to patients with reduced gastrointestinal motility. Caution is also advised in the presence of  cardiac conduction disorders or unstable cardiovascular disease.

Pregnancy:

There is no report or evidence that pregnant patients may react adversely to glucafene, however the risk/benefit ratio must be considered.

Lactation:
Caution must be used, though no evidence of problems during lactation was reported.

Dosage and administration:
Adults: one tablespoonful 3 to 4 times daily.
Children: ½ to 1 teaspoonful 3 to 4 times daily.